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Future studies should also make an effort to control for light exposure, both in terms of the ambient light in the environment, and in terms of whether the eyes are open or closed. Changes in light exposure can result in compensatory changes in the retina dark adaptation that may also cause short-lived changes in visual experience Lamb and Pugh, Similarly, visual after-effects are also brief adaptations in response to certain stimuli that may be mediated at the level of the eye or brain Rhodes et al.
Because eye-based changes are less enduring than brain-based changes, more information about the duration of meditation-induced light experiences may also help elucidate their underlying sensory and neural mechanisms. This paper demonstrates importance of engaging with traditional Buddhist presentations of the states and stages of meditation, as what is described in the texts in many cases is very closely linked with reports of meditation experience derived from contemporary practitioners.
By investigating traditional Buddhist sources, meditation researchers and clinicians will be more informed about the varieties of meditation experiences and their possible significance. Investigating meditation-induced light experiences suggests that on account of restricting attention by deselecting sensory stimuli, certain meditation practices may function in a manner analogous to sensory deprivation and perceptual isolation.
The arising of lights may signal a period of enhanced neuroplasticity and potential for important and enduring shifts. Further research should investigate whether it is the unique configuration of sensory deprivation, attentional training, and investigative processes that accounts for why meditative practices tend to lead to enduring perceptual and affective changes and cognitive insights.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We would also like to thank the Clinical and Affective Neuroscience Laboratory for their time and Jack Kornfield for his pioneering efforts and support of this project. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v.
Published online Jan 3. Jared R. Lindahl , 1 Christopher T. Kaplan , 2 Evan M. Winget , 2 and Willoughby B. Christopher T.
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Evan M. Willoughby B. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Consciousness Research, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Aug 29; Accepted Dec 9. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The scientific study of Buddhist meditation has proceeded without much attention to Buddhist literature that details the range of psychological and physiological changes thought to occur during meditation. Keywords: meditation, buddhism, concentration, light, hallucinations, neuroplasticity. Open in a separate window. Table 1 Practitioner data and reports of meditation-induced light experiences. Subject no.
Sex Dominant practice tradition Duration of practice before lights years Retreat or daily practice Light experience excerpts M Vipassan. Literature throughout the Therav. Class two: patterned and diffuse lights The second class of light-related phenomena includes patterned and diffuse changes to the visual field, most commonly described as shimmering, pixelation, or brightening. Textual interpretations of meditation-induced light experiences As suggested above, reports of meditation-induced light phenomena can be found across Buddhist traditions, in both historical, textual accounts and among accounts from contemporary practitioners.
In the context of Therav. Sensory deprivation Sensory deprivation includes exposure to environments that present the subject with minimal sensory input. Perceptual isolation Perceptual isolation refers to exposure to homogenous, invariant, or unstructured stimuli Wackermann et al. Visual impairment Among disorders of the visual system, Charles Bonnet Syndrome is classically associated with visual hallucinations and light-related experiences. Table 2 Comparative typology of visual hallucinations and meditation-related light experiences. Table 3 Comparison of sensory deprivation, perceptual isolation, and meditation.
Concentration as sensory deprivation In addition to the structural aspects of meditation practices listed above, it is possible that the intense attentional engagement of Buddhist meditation practices also functions as a form of sensory deprivation. Implications for clinical applications of meditation While light-related experiences arising in the context of meditation are well documented in traditional contexts, they are largely unknown in clinical settings.http://guai.im/suxur-chloroquine-phosphate.php
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Study limitations and suggestions for future research The investigation of phenomena that has received little empirical attention requires inductive methods that are intended to be free of both assumptions and hypotheses. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Hallucinations: The Science of Idiosyncratic Perception. Enhanced excitability of the human visual cortex induced by short-term light deprivation.
Cortex 10 — Mechanisms underlying rapid experience-dependent plasticity in the human visual cortex. Attention enhances synaptic efficacy and the signal-to-noise ratio in neural circuits. Nature — Awakening is not a metaphor: the effects of Buddhist meditation practices on basic wakefulness. Differences in visual sensitivity among mindfulness meditators and non-meditators. Skills 58 — The Path of Purification ed. Nanamoli B. The neural basis of Charles Bonnet hallucinations: a hypothesis. Psychiatry 73 — Occipital gamma activation during Vipassana meditation. Content analysis: concepts, methods and applications.
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