This group has a primary concern with maintaining some form of legal system and social cohesion after a breakdown in the technical infrastructure of society. Common preparations include the creation of a clandestine or defensible retreat, haven, or bug out location BOL in addition to the stockpiling of non-perishable food, water, water-purification equipment, clothing, seed, firewood, defensive or hunting weapons, ammunition, agricultural equipment , and medical supplies.
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Some survivalists do not make such extensive preparations, and simply incorporate a " Be Prepared " outlook into their everyday life. A bag of gear, often referred to as a " bug out bag " BOB or "get out of dodge" G. It can be of any size, weighing as much as the user is able to carry. Survivalists' concerns and preparations have changed over the years. During the s, fears were economic collapse, hyperinflation, and famine.
Preparations included food storage and survival retreats in the country which could be farmed. Some survivalists stockpiled precious metals and barterable goods such as common-caliber ammunition because they assumed that paper currency would become worthless.
During the early s, nuclear war became a common fear, and some survivalists constructed fallout shelters.
In , many people purchased electric generators , water purifiers, and several months' or years' worth of food in anticipation of widespread power outages because of the Y2K computer-bug. Instead of moving or making such preparations at home, many people also make plans to remain in their current locations until an actual breakdown occurs, when they will—in survivalist parlance—"bug out" or "get out of Dodge" to a safer location.
Other survivalists have more specialized concerns, often related to an adherence to apocalyptic religious beliefs. Some evangelical Christians hold to an interpretation of Bible prophecy known as the post-tribulation rapture , in which the world will have to go through a seven-year period of war and global dictatorship known as the " Great Tribulation ". Similarly, some Catholics are preppers, based on Marian apparitions which speak of a great chastisement of humanity by God, particularly those associated with Our Lady of Fatima and Our Lady of Akita which states "fire will fall from the sky and will wipe out a great part of humanity".
People who are not part of survivalist groups or apolitically oriented religious groups also make preparations for emergencies. This can include depending on the location preparing for earthquakes, floods , power outages , blizzards, avalanches , wildfires , terrorist attacks, nuclear power plant accidents, hazardous material spills, tornadoes, and hurricanes. These preparations can be as simple as following Red Cross and U. Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA recommendations by keeping a first aid kit, shovel, and extra clothes in the car, or by maintaining a small kit of emergency supplies, containing emergency food, water, a space blanket, and other essentials.
Mainstream economist and financial adviser Barton Biggs is a proponent of preparedness. In his book Wealth, War and Wisdom , Biggs has a gloomy outlook for the economic future, and suggests that investors take survivalist measures.source url
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In the book, Biggs recommends that his readers should "assume the possibility of a breakdown of the civilized infrastructure. Biggs writes. Think Swiss Family Robinson. Even in America and Europe, there could be moments of riot and rebellion when law and order temporarily completely breaks down. For global catastrophic risks the costs of food storage become impractical for most of the population  and for some such catastrophes conventional agriculture would not function due to the loss of a large fraction of sunlight e.
In such situations, alternative food is necessary, which is converting natural gas and wood fiber to human edible food. Survivalists maintain their group identity by using specialized terminology not generally understood outside their circles. They also use terms that are unique to their own survivalist groups; common acronyms include:.
Despite a lull following the end of the Cold War, survivalism has gained greater attention in recent years, resulting in increased popularity of the survivalist lifestyle, as well as increased scrutiny. A National Geographic show interviewing survivalists, Doomsday Preppers , was a "ratings bonanza"  and "the network's most-watched series",  yet Neil Genzlinger in The New York Times declared it an "absurd excess on display and at what an easy target the prepper worldview is for ridicule," noting, "how offensively anti-life these shows are, full of contempt for humankind.
Gerald Celente, founder of the Trends Research Institute, noted how many modern survivalists deviate from the classic archetype, terming this new style "neo-survivalism"; "you know, the caricature, the guy with the AK heading to the hills with enough ammunition and pork and beans to ride out the storm. This [neo-survivalist] is a very different one from that". In popular culture, survivalism has been associated with paramilitary activities.
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Some survivalists do take active defensive preparations that have military roots and that involve firearms , and this aspect is sometimes emphasized by the mass media. The potential for social collapse is often cited as motivation for being well-armed. The U. The Missouri Information Analysis Center MIAC issued on February 20, a report intended for law enforcement personnel only entitled "The Modern Militia Movement," which described common symbols and media, including political bumper stickers, associated with militia members and domestic terrorists.
The report appeared March 13, on WikiLeaks  and a controversy ensued. It was claimed that the report was derived purely from publicly available trend data on militias. Individual survivalist preparedness and survivalist groups and forums—both formal and informal—are popular worldwide, most visibly in Australia,   Austria,  Belgium, Canada,  Spain,  France,   Germany  often organized under the guise of " adventuresport " clubs ,  Italy,  Netherlands,  Russia,  Sweden,    Switzerland,  the United Kingdom,  and the United States.
Adherents of the back-to-the-land movement inspired by Helen and Scott Nearing , sporadically popular in the United States in the s and s exemplified by The Mother Earth News magazine , share many of the same interests in self-sufficiency and preparedness. Back-to-the-landers differ from most survivalists in that they have a greater interest in ecology and counterculture.
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Despite these differences, The Mother Earth News was widely read by survivalists as well as back-to-the-landers during that magazine's early years, and there was some overlap between the two movements. Anarcho-primitivists share many characteristics with survivalists, most notably predictions of a pending ecological disaster. Writers such as Derrick Jensen argue that industrial civilization is not sustainable, and will therefore inevitably bring about its own collapse. Some members of the Men Going Their Own Way subculture also promote off-grid living and believe that modern society is no longer liveable.
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- A Survival Guide for Leaders;
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Please help improve this section if you can. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. For the novel, see Patriots Novels Series. See also: Survivalism in fiction. Air-raid shelter Alternative food American Redoubt Bug-out bag First aid and wilderness first aid Intentional community Living off the land Off-the-grid Resilience organizational Survival skills Urban resilience.
Stirling Mel Tappan Lofty Wiseman. Online Etymology Dictionary. Gospel Library. Retrieved Kephart — ". Archived from the original on Archived from the original PDF on Kunstler, Jim. Signal Survival. The New York Times. NBC News. The Times. The Trends Journal. Winter LA Times. Retrieved 15 January Yahoo news. Retrieved December 19, Retrieved 6 April Energy Bulletin. Transition Culture. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in German. Factor Magazine.
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