Children & Television


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Here are some of the main points they emphasize: Young children watch more television than any other age group. Between the ages of 2 and 3, most children develop a favorite television show and begin to acquire the habit of watching television.

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Children and Television

American children between the ages of 2 and 5 spend more time watching TV than any other age group! Presumably, school and other activities cut down on viewing time for children in the 6 to year-old category. Among other things, heavy TV viewing can also mean heavy exposure to violence. Children's programming has consistently been found to have higher levels of violence than any other category of programming. And young children also frequently watch violent programming intended for adults.

Table 2 presents the results of the regressions of the PIAT mathematics, reading recognition, and reading comprehension scores on the predictors and the potential confounders for each of the 2 models. Television viewing before age 3 years was associated with a deleterious effect on both reading recognition and reading comprehension, with each additional hour per day leading to a reduction in scores of 0. By contrast, television viewing at ages 3 to 5 years was associated with an increase in reading comprehension scores of 0. In the model with television viewing included as categorical variables, the low-high television viewing pattern improved mathematics, reading recognition, and reading comprehension scores, respectively, by 2.

The low-low television viewing pattern improved mathematics and reading comprehension scores by 2. The scores of the high-low pattern were statistically indistinguishable from those of the high-high group in these domains. The scores of the low-low television and low-high television groups were statistically indistinguishable from each other. Table 3 presents the results of the regression of Digit Span outcome on the television variables and potential confounders.

Again, in the linear model, early television viewing was associated with an adverse effect on Digit Span, with each hour per day viewed associated with a 0. In the categorical model, only the results for the low-low television group were significant, with an effect of 0. Table 4 presents the results of the regressions of the PIAT mathematics scores for the lower than median—income and higher than median—income subsamples separately.

Is television destroying our children's minds? | Society | The Guardian

In the lower than median—income subsample, each hour per day of television viewing before age 3 years in the linear model was associated with a 0. In the categorical model, only the low-low television viewing pattern was significant, with a benefit of 2. In the higher than median—income subsample, television viewing was not significant in the linear model.

In the categorical model, only the low-high television viewing pattern was significant, with an effect of 2. This analysis has shown a consistent pattern of negative associations between television viewing before age 3 years and adverse cognitive outcomes at ages 6 and 7 years. However, the causal mechanism of such an effect, if any, is not clear.

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It might be that children younger than 3 years who spend more time watching television spend less time in other activities, such as imaginative free play, interactions with adults, and so forth, that would be beneficial to their cognitive development. Or, it may be that the content of the television they watch is deleterious to their cognitive development. Finally, it may be that the medium itself is deleterious, whether because of aspects of the production eg, the pacing and rapid scene changes or the simple fact of looking in a single direction at a single stimulus for a long time.

This analysis sheds no light on these issues and clearly begs more focused research into these potential causal pathways. Very little, if any, educational content was available for children younger than 3 years in the years when the children in this study were that age —a situation that continues today. Yet children younger than 3 years in this sample were watching an average of 2. Parents may believe that even at young ages television generally can be educational, yet this study suggests that television for very young children is not helpful for cognitive development and may indeed be harmful.

By contrast, this analysis suggests that television viewing at ages 3 to 5 years has a more beneficial effect, at least for the outcomes of reading recognition and short-term memory Digit Span. Because reading recognition and short-term memory are arguably the most basic of the cognitive outcomes studied, the implication would seem to be that the net effect of television viewing from a population perspective is limited in its beneficial impact.

The magnitude of these effects in the linear model is not large. Each hour of television viewing at any age is associated with changes positive or negative, depending on the age on the order of fractions of 1 SD in the outcomes.

Children's Educational Television

However, considering the wide range of television viewing hours and the relatively large standard deviation in the hours of television viewing more than 2 hours per day , there is a modest effect of television. Additional light is shed on the magnitude of the effects in the categorical model. The effect of having a viewing pattern of low-low television or low-high television as opposed to high-high television is in the range of 2 to 4 for reading and mathematics scores.

For comparison purposes, the effect of a 1-SD increase in maternal intelligence as measured by the Armed Forces Qualifying Test ranges from 1. To achieve this effect through maternal education would imply an additional 2. Accordingly, while the magnitudes of the association of heavy television viewing with cognitive outcomes are not enormous, they are commensurate with the magnitudes of large changes in maternal education and intelligence.

Toddler - Pre-School Children And Watching Television - annevisore.ga

There are 2 potentially important features of this analysis. First, the television viewing measure used—maternal report of typical viewing hours—is known to be inaccurate. There are several different ways of assessing the amount of television viewed, including direct observation of participant viewing, assessment by a Portable People Meter a device that is worn by the participant that picks up continuous, inaudible station identification information , 35 and daily time-use diaries that include the shows actually watched.

The estimates of viewing time obtained by these different methods vary considerably by method. Second, the same argument can be made for the outcome variables, which are brief instruments. A more thorough assessment of outcomes would reduce measurement error and would by some unknown margin increase our ability to detect an effect. Television viewing in early childhood varies depending on age; for very young children the effects are negative, while for preschool children they can be constructive, at least in some domains.

The notion that early exposure to this medium can have adverse consequences on processing has been advanced for some time.


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The results here are specific to the programming and cultural context of the United States. Programming in other countries differs to some extent from that available to US viewers, and those who view with subtitles may benefit more or less from the concurrent display of written and spoken languages, although such cultural effect modification is undoubtedly more pronounced for older viewers.

The American Academy of Pediatrics has issued guidelines urging parents to avoid any television or video viewing before age 2 years. This analysis complements this earlier work by suggesting that viewing a heavy television diet entails modest, but statistically significant, consequences for subsequent development in several key cognitive domains. Correspondence: Frederick J. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Hayes , Dana W. Corre - lates hetween observed hehavior and questionnaire responses on television viewing. Bechtel , R. Young children's attention to "Sesame Street.

Preschool children: TV, YouTube, games and movies

Anderson , Stephen R. A developmental study of the effects of irrelevant information on speeded classification George Franklin Strutt , Daniel R. Anderson , Arnold D. Children's attention: The development of selectivity. Pick , D. Frankel , V. The use of time: daily activities of urban and suburban populations in twelve countries John Bradstreet Perry Robinson , Philip E.

Converse , A. Related Papers.

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