Geological Society of America Special Paper Morgan , L.
Eaton , and G. Despite often poor age constraints, these studies nevertheless suggest broad vegetation trends from late glacial into early Holocene times. Pre-BOA, there is variable evidence for either tundra or boreal parkland biomes. During the BOA, these studies suggest variable boreal forest communities of spruce, fir, and pine, with some deciduous taxa. YD-age pollen and plant macro botanical assemblages typically show no clear temperature reversals: coniferous taxa are still present, but usually accompanied by oak. Moving into the early Holocene, hardwood forests prevail, typically dominated by oak.
In some pollen core profiles, low rates of deposition or unconformities suggest dry early Holocene climates e. Recent studies provide paleoenvironmental insights on the Coastal Plain of the mid-Atlantic from before the LGM until early Paleoindian times. Puseman et al. Yost , and A. Technical Report Manuscript on file, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.
During this period, the upland interior landscape of the Delmarva Peninsula appears to have been relatively stable. Haynes, Gary. Bone-breakage and other disturbances at the Inglewood Mammoth Site. Pollen from several locations suggests relatively mild conditions at or slightly before Clovis. A similar suite of pollen was noted for a roughly contemporaneous sample extracted at Duck Creek in Delaware Kellogg and Custer Kellogg, D.
Brush Brush, G. Curtin , G.
Brush , and G. Fisher , 40 — Surficial geology of glaciated portions of the Northeast consists primarily of till deposits, and around the Gulf of Maine, silty near-shore submarine deposits of the Presumpscot transgression e. Thompson , 29 — Special Paper Boulder : Geological Society of America. South of the LGM ice margin, residual soils prevail. In addition, late glacial landscapes of the Northeast included distinctive aeolian landscapes that reflect sub-regional histories of the late Pleistocene.
In the unglaciated middle Ohio Valley, wind erosion of outwash deposits during late Pleistocene formed localized dune fields on the margins of the river valley. Comprising unusual ecological settings, these dune fields sometimes attracted early Paleoindian occupations e. Dancey , 77 — Columbus : Ohio Historical Society.
Further east, in the Hudson and Connecticut valleys, drainage of proglacial lakes Albany and Hitchcock exposed lake bed sediments to wind erosion. Where rivers had drained into these former proglacial lakes, winds eroded deltaic sediments, creating localized dune fields in their vicinity. As in the Ohio Valley, these dune fields were attractive for early and middle Paleoindian occupations J.
Bradley et al.
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Tucker and Robert G. Marvinney , 89 — Augusta : Maine Geological Survey. Extensive, true loess deposits are mapped along the Coastal Plain of the southern mid-Atlantic and across the Delmarva Peninsula.
The deposition and differential erosion of these deposits have variably buried or exposed late Pleistocene archaeological materials Lowery et al. Variation in the aeolian sequence chronology for the Delmarva Peninsula usually reflects factors of localized geology and wind velocity.
For example, Markewich et al. Litwin , D. Wysocki , and M. The most carefully studied regional loess deposit on the Delmarva Peninsula can be confined to a very narrow time frame Wah et al. Lowery , and D.
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Washington DC : Smithsonian Institution. The timing of this erosion event has also been observed in dated cores extracted from beneath the modern Chesapeake Bay Cronin Cronin, T. In the mid-Atlantic, the YD-age Paw Paw loess was formed as the result of several factors, including rapid climate change, sea level change, isostasy, and possibly bio-ecological stress.
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Some researchers Eisenman et al. Bitz , and E. If the increased precipitation noted by Eisenman et al. The combination of factors may have also initiated biological stress on the vegetation, which may have further destabilized the upland and exacerbated erosion. During the YD, the lower reaches of the Susquehanna River i. Because of the accrued sediment at or near base level, a braided lower Susquehanna River channel may have formed. Recent research has shown that the chronological timing of the MIS 4 to MIS 2 aeolian sequences for the Delmarva Peninsula is further complicated by the accumulation of mixed carbon within the regionally recognized Tilghman paleosol Lowery et al.
Cooler late Wisconsinan climatic conditions resulted in the long-term preservation of vitrified charcoal.
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As such, aeolian localities with a single paleosol can produce a gamut of averaged radiometric ages see Section 4. There are, however, geologic exposures like Elliotts Island, which contain peat buried beneath aeolian deposits Lowery et al. Wah , and T. Meeker , S. Whitlow , M.
Twickler , M. Morrison , R. Alley , P. Bloomfield , and K. Further research may ultimately be able to correlate the Delmarva sequence with dust in the northern hemisphere ice core record. Across the Northeast study area, pre-Clovis and Paleoindian sites with radiocarbon dates in good association are rare and geographically variable in their occurrence.
Accordingly, researchers rely heavily on relative dating for site age assessments, most commonly using temporal sequences of diagnostic bifaces developed for different parts of the Northeast. For much of our study area, however, these sub-regional biface sequences are still in a formative stage and subject to revision and refinement as attribute data sets expand and opportunities for radiocarbon and geochronological dating come to light. Subsequently, we compare the Paleoindian biface sequences with accepted age determinations for Paleoindian sites in the Northeast.
Figure 9 Pre-Clovis bottom row and early Paleoindian biface forms top row in the Northeast. Collins et al. Stanford , Darrin L. Larry , and Bruce A. The first of these is a laurel leaf-shaped bipoint that may display over-face or overshot percussion flaking and variable marginal pressure flaking Collins et al.
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Stanford et al. Boulanger and Eren Boulanger, Matthew T. These apparent Pleistocene-age bipoint biface forms, however, with multiple examples found at the Parson's Island site see below , may be the oldest examples of this particular artifact type in the Northeast.
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